On 31st December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. On 7th January 2020, the causative pathogen was identified as a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). On 12th February 2020, the novel coronavirus was named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The associated disease is now referred to as Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), and was declared a pandemic by WHO on 11th March
There is limited knowledge about the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, regarding person-to-person spread, severity of resulting infections as well as treatment. New information about this virus keeps emerging, hence the need to keep up with current information to inform important decisions.
The first two cases of COVID-19 in Ghana were confirmed on 12th March 2020. This called for immediate intensive actions towards the containment of the disease across the country. Preventive measures including effective hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene as well as other Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) practices like social distancing, the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs) were instituted at all treatment centers and in the community.
As part of efforts to mitigate the pandemic, a multi-disciplinary panel of
experts were convened to develop evidence-based country-specific guidelines.
This provisional guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with COVID-19. It is intended to ensure the best possible chances of
survival through optimized supportive care for all patients. Due to the novel
nature of this virus, this provisional guideline is also intended to serve as a basis for research into treatments that are showing promise.
According to the WHO, the United States (US) Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), there are currently (as at the time of developing this guideline) no vaccines that have proven to be effective for the prevention of COVID-19. Additionally, there is insufficient clinical trial evidence globally to support the efficacy and/or safe use of any medicines or blood products (e.g. convalescent plasma) in the prevention (including pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis) or treatment of COVID-19.
There are currently a number of ongoing clinical trials that may warrant
review of this provisional guideline on a periodic basis. This guideline is
therefore a living document and will continue to be updated in response to
The general public must avoid statements that stigmatize people with or are
suspected to have COVID-19 and any of their contacts as this potentially could prevent or delay reporting.
How to clean and disinfect
1. Develop Your Plan
DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO BE CLEANED.
Areas unoccupied for 7 or more days need only routine cleaning. Maintain existing cleaning practices for outdoor areas.
DETERMINE HOW AREAS WILL BE DISINFECTED.
Consider the type of surface and how often the surface is touched. Prioritize disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.
CONSIDER THE RESOURCES AND EQUIPMENT NEEDED.
Keep in mind the availability of cleaning products and personal protective equipment (PPE) appropriate for cleaners and disinfectants.2. Implement
CLEAN VISIBLY DIRTY SURFACES WITH SOAP AND WATER prior to disinfection.
USE THE APPROPRIATE CLEANING OR DISINFECTANT PRODUCT.
Use an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved disinfectant against COVID-19 and read the label to make sure it meets your needs.
ALWAYS FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS ON THE LABEL.
The label will include safety information and application instructions. Keep disinfectants out of the reach of children.3. Maintain and Revise
CONTINUE ROUTINE CLEANING AND DISINFECTION.
Continue or revise your plan based on appropriate disinfectant and PPE availability. Dirty surfaces should be cleaned with soap and water prior to disinfection. Routinely disinfect frequently touched surfaces at least daily.